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Title:Visual Basic Notebook For .NET
Description:Visual Basic Notebook For .NET includes code examples and tips related to VB.NET as well as articles on general software development practices.
Keywords:Visual Basic,.NET,Code Examples,programming,programming tips
Body:
Visual Basic Notebook For .NET
Articles on VB.NET and Software Development Team Leadership
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How To Create a CAPTCHA Graphic in VB.NET
In this article we #8217;ll be creating a class to generate CAPTCHA graphics that you can use on web sites to help authenticate users as being human and not an automated process.
What Is CAPTCHA
CAPTCHA is an abbreviation for Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. This method uses images of words or numbers that are, in theory, distorted and jumbled enough so that an optical character recognition program can #8217;t read them but a human should be able to do so easily.
I #8217;m not a big fan of this method myself since I think it interferes with the user experience. However, there is plenty of demand for them to be placed into systems that interact with the public on the Internet.
The CAPTCHA Class
You can download the CAPTCHA class source code here.
This class is a simple one that builds a 5 character numeric string and places it on a grid background with random #8216;noise #8217;. Our properties include the height, width, and font along with the randomly generated value between 10000 and 99999 and the matching bitmap. The new method is available as a parameterless version for subclassing and one that allows you to pass in the height, width, and font.
The core routine is the GenerateNewCaptcha shown here:
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Subspan GenerateNewCaptcha()
span class="kwrd"Ifspan _captchaFont span class="kwrd"Isspan span class="kwrd"Nothingspan span class="kwrd"OrElsespan _captchaHeight = 0 span class="kwrd"OrElsespan _captchaWidth = 0 span class="kwrd"Thenspan
span class="kwrd"Exitspan span class="kwrd"Subspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Ifspan
_captchaCode = RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(10000, 100000).ToString
_captchaImage = span class="kwrd"Newspan Bitmap(_captchaWidth, _captchaHeight)
Using CaptchaGraphics span class="kwrd"Asspan Graphics = Graphics.FromImage(CaptchaImage)
Using BackgroundBrush span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Newspan Drawing2D.HatchBrush(Drawing2D.HatchStyle.SmallGrid, Color.DimGray, Color.WhiteSmoke)
CaptchaGraphics.FillRectangle(BackgroundBrush, 0, 0, _captchaWidth, _captchaHeight)
span class="kwrd"Endspan Using
span class="kwrd"Dimspan CharacterSpacing span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan = (_captchaWidth \ 5) - 1
span class="kwrd"Dimspan HorizontalPosition span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan
span class="kwrd"Dimspan MaxVerticalPosition span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan
span class="kwrd"Forspan span class="kwrd"Eachspan CharValue span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Charspan span class="kwrd"Inspan _captchaCode.ToCharArray
MaxVerticalPosition = _captchaHeight - Convert.ToInt32(CaptchaGraphics.MeasureString(CharValue, _captchaFont).Height)
CaptchaGraphics.DrawString(CharValue, _captchaFont, Brushes.DimGray, HorizontalPosition, RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(0, MaxVerticalPosition))
HorizontalPosition += CharacterSpacing + RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(-1, 1)
span class="kwrd"Nextspan
span class="kwrd"Forspan Counter span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan = 0 span class="kwrd"Tospan 24
CaptchaGraphics.FillEllipse(Brushes.DimGray, RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, _captchaWidth), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, _captchaHeight), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, 4), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, 4))
span class="kwrd"Nextspan
span class="kwrd"Forspan Counter span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan = 0 span class="kwrd"Tospan 24
CaptchaGraphics.FillEllipse(Brushes.WhiteSmoke, RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, _captchaWidth), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, _captchaHeight), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, 4), RandomValue.span class="kwrd"Nextspan(1, 4))
span class="kwrd"Nextspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan Using
span class="kwrd"End Subspan
Let #8217;s look at some of the details of this routine.
First, notice that we #8217;re generating random numbers in several places, most notably to generate the main code value. We also use random numbers to place the numbers and the noise bits.
The HatchBrush object is used to draw the grid background. This style could be changed to a different pattern. There are several variations you could try to get a unique effect. You could even randomize the background.
The characters from the randomly generated number are drawn onto the graphic one character at a time and are randomly placed along the vertical axis and slightly off kilter on the horizontal one.
The FillEllipse method of the Graphics object is used to create the noise at 50 different random points on the graphic. These little marks help obscure the actual characters from OCR #8217;s and sometimes from humans as well.
Using the Class
Using the class is simple. You just create the class, display the graphic from it and verify user input against the value stored in the class. You can also regenerate the value if the user requests it. Remember that you will need to save the generated bitmap to disk in order to display it to a web user in an ASP.NET application.
More You Can Add
There are several things you could add to this class to enhance it. You could:
- Add the ability to accept strings
- Add the ability to dynamically size the strings and the resulting bitmap
- Add more distortion by using Graphics method to twist the output
- Add more background noise options
That #8217;s all for this example. Let me know if you have any questions or observations by this example by leaving me a comment.
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17 commentsNovember 6th, 2007
Application Plug-ins Code Example Update
As a follow-up to my previous article, How To Create Application Plug-ins In VB.NET, Karl Stoney asked for a more complete example. Hopefully this update will help.
Tips and Tricks
One trick you can use to make your development of these plugins easier is to have multiple projects in your solution. In the case of the demo app I added the main demo project, the interface project, and the two plugin projects to the solution. If I wanted to have another plugin, I would just add it to this solution. This makes debugging easier and saves system memory somewhat vs. running separate instances of Visual Studio
Another trick is to change the compile output folder to a common folder. This puts all of the executable in the same folder, once again for easy debugging. Remember that your plugins when deployed must be in the same folder as the calling application.
The Demo
In this code example, we have a PluginDemo application that can call various plugins that conform to the IMyPlugIn interface. We also have a PlugIn1 and a PlugIn2 projects that implement the interface in different ways. PlugIn1 uses a standard message box while PlugIn2 uses a custom form.
The core code itself isn #8217;t any different from the code presented in the previous article. The LoadPlugIn routine is the key to using Reflection to load the plugin. To get a better understanding of how it all comes together I recommend stepping through the process as it runs.
The zip file contains the project code but I excluded the executables. After unzipping the project you will need to first build the PlugInInterface project by itself. This will create the DLL that the other 3 projects need to reference. Once you #8217;ve done this, do a Build Solution and it should be ready to run.
Here #8217;s the demo zip file: VB.NET Application Plugin Demo
Let me know if you have any questions about this demo or application plug-ins in VB.NET.
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6 commentsNovember 5th, 2007
Site News For 11/5/2007
Back From a Hiatus
I took about a week hiatus from VB Notebook For .NET while I was working on my other, general topic, blog, OpTempo, and another yet-to-be-released web project but I #8217;m back working on this site now. I just need to figure out a good way to do #8216;re-runs #8217; the next time I take a break or work on other projects.
Coming Up This Week
I #8217;ve got my follow-up article on coaching that I should publish this week as well as a few follow-up and new article and demos. If you have a topic you would like for me to cover, let me know in a comment or email.
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1 commentNovember 5th, 2007
VB.NET Interview Questions #6
Here #8217;s installment #6 of my VB.NET interview questions series.
Previous Installments: #1, #xA0; #2, #xA0; #3, #xA0; #4 , #5
Feel free to add a comment with your answers. Try to answer them before looking at the comments or searching MSDN or Google for an extra challenge.
True Or False
1. Base-class constructors are not inherited by derived classes.
2. A class may only implement a single interface.
3. A checkbox may have either a square or circular appearance.
4. HttpSessionState can only store string values.
5. A page object #8217;s IsPostBack property is used to determine if the page is being loaded due to a postback. #xA0;
General VB.NET Questions
1. Should you throw exceptions in the Finally block? Why or why not?
2. How do you create a scrolling region on a form?
3. What are some differences between CType and DirectCast?
4. Should you use a quot;sp_ quot; prefix on SQL Server stored procedures? Why or why not?
5. If you have an ASP.NET application with a Master Page how can you change meta data from child pages?
Tough General Interview Questions
1. How do you think your previous experience will help you perform your work here?
2. Would you say that you #8217;re a competitive person? Why or why not?
3. Why did you decided to get a degree in [job candidates college major]?
4. Why do you want to work at [insert company name here]?
5. Give an example of how you applied creativity in your current/former job?
Open Ended Questions
1. Describe what you consider to be best practices for creating a testing environment.
2. You are given the task of developing an interface to a vendor #8217;s web service. The documentation is very minimal for it and may be outdated. What approach would you take to developing this interface? #xA0;
Have fun with these and let me know what you think about them by leaving a comment or answering the questions.
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3 commentsOctober 28th, 2007
Introduction to Interfaces in VB.NET
One problem some programmers new to VB.NET and object oriented programming in general have is understanding interfaces and how they related to classes. In this article, we #8217;ll take an introductory look at interfaces and some of the ways you can use them in your VB.NET applications.
What is an Interface?
To put it in simple terms, an interface is a definition of methods and properties. Sometimes this is referred to as a #8216;contract #8217;. If a class agrees to implement an interface it must implement all of the properties and methods defined.
One difference you #8217;ll see in an interface vs. a class is that there is no code, only the templates, aka contracts, for the properties and methods. You #8217;ll also notice that there is no access level defined. It #8217;s always considered public.
Here #8217;s an example interface:
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Interfacespan IPerson
span class="kwrd"Propertyspan ID() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan
span class="kwrd"Propertyspan FirstName() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan
span class="kwrd"Propertyspan LastName() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Interfacespan
This means that if a class implements the IPerson interface it will have to implement these routines. Here #8217;s an example of a class implementing this interface:
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Classspan Customer span class="kwrd"Implementsspan IPerson
span class="kwrd"Protectedspan _id span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan
span class="kwrd"Protectedspan _firstName span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspanspan class="kwrd" Protectedspan _middleName span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan
span class="kwrd"Protectedspan _lastName span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan ID() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan span class="kwrd"Implementsspan IPerson.ID
span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Returnspan _id
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Setspan(span class="kwrd"ByValspan value span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan)
_id = value
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Setspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan FirstName() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan span class="kwrd"Implementsspan IPerson.FirstName
span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Returnspan _firstName
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Setspan(span class="kwrd"ByValspan value span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan)
_firstName = value
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Setspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan MiddleName() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan
span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Returnspan _middleName
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Setspan(span class="kwrd"ByValspan value span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan)
_middleName = value
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Setspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Propertyspan LastName() span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan span class="kwrd"Implementsspan IPerson.LastName
span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Returnspan _lastName
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Getspan
span class="kwrd"Setspan(span class="kwrd"ByValspan value span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Stringspan)
_lastName = value
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Setspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan Propertyspan class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Classspan
As you can see, each of the properties above, except for MiddleName, has an Implements statement that defines how it will fulfill the Interface contract. The rule is that you can add to the interface inside the implementing class but you can #8217;t take away.
Remember that implementing an interface isn #8217;t the same as creating an instance of a class or creating a subclass. All you #8217;re doing is defining how the external interface should look, not what goes on inside. People do get confused over that point.
Coding Interfaces
Interfaces can be very simple or complex. Most current OOP thought suggests that interfaces be limited to a single method. For example, you might have an IUpdate interface that defines a single Update function and you might have another interface called ICreate that defines a single Create function. You would then combine them into classes that needed to implement them, as in this example:
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Interfacespan ICreate
span class="kwrd"Functionspan CreateNew(span class="kwrd"ByValspan id span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan) span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Booleanspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan span class="kwrd"Interfacespan
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Interfacespan IUpdate
span class="kwrd"Functionspan Update(span class="kwrd"ByValspan id span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Integerspan) span class="kwrd"Asspan span class="kwrd"Booleanspan
span class="kwrd"Endspan Interface
span class="kwrd"Publicspan span class="kwrd"Classspan Customer
span class="kwrd"Implementsspan IPerson, IUpdate, ICreate
As you can see, a class can implement multiple interfaces. Whether it #8217;s better to design with a lot of different interfaces or to group them into logical sections is really up to your own needs. My own take is a bit of a compromise in that I keep them simple with just a few tightly related methods or properties but I don #8217;t religiously limit each interface to a single item.
Another use for interfaces is in defining a common interface for a plug-in architecture as I mentioned in this previous article: How To Create Application Plug-ins In VB.NET. In this case, you will want to have a more complex interface design in most cases since your main app will need a stronger connection to the plug-in.
Do you have any questions about using Interfaces in VB.NET? Please feel free to leave a comment and ask about it.
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29 commentsOctober 23rd, 2007
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